“Freedom of the press, freedom of association, the inviolability of domicile, and all the rest of the rights of man are respected so long as no one tries to use them against the privileged class. On the day they are launched against the privileged they are overthrown.” (Prince Peter Kropotkin)
Different aspects of freedom are globally fundamental value of human rights, civil liberties or human development in general. Human development has been described in UNDP as “a process of enlarging people’s choices”. This in turn requires the freedom of people to make their choices and the opportunities to realize them. Rankings or ratings are one kind of (process) benchmarking in which organizations or in this case states evaluate various aspects of their processes in relation to best practice.
In this article I make a short update about political rights and civil liberties, freedom of press and some economical aspects in mostly Balkans and Black Sea regions. As sources (described next paragraph) I have used last reports available. Besides regions mentioned I have included to table also top and worst scores, U.S. as old superpower and BRIC countries as rising superpowers.
Sources of this story:
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is is the UN’s global development network. Since 1990, annual Human Development Reports have explored challenges including poverty, gender, democracy, human rights, cultural liberty, globalization, water scarcity and climate change. The Human Development Index (HDI)Table HDR 2009 measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living. More: UNDP http://hdr.undp.org/en/
Freedom House is an independent watchdog organization that supports the expansion of freedom around the world. Freedom House supports democratic change, monitors freedom, and advocates for democracy and human rights. Founded in 1941 by prominent Americans organization’s viewpoint is mostly Anglo-American. Freedom House has been publishing its Freedom in the World reports since 1972 and it publishes also Freedom in the Press report since 1980. More: Freedom House
Founded in 1973, The Heritage Foundation is a research and educational institution—a think tank—whose mission is to formulate and promote conservative public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense. Together with The Wall Street Journal they publish e.g. “Economic freedom index”. More: The Heritage Foundation.
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is an independent, international organization incorporated as a Swiss not-for-profit foundation. WEF believes that economic progress without social development is not sustainable, while social development without economic progress is not feasible. WEF aims to be: the foremost organization which builds and energizes leading global communities; the creative force shaping global, regional and industry strategies; the catalyst of choice for its communities when undertaking global initiatives to improve the state of the world. WEF defines competitiveness as the set of institutions, policies, and factors that determine the level of productivity of a country. World Economic Forum has published “The Global Competitiveness Report 2009-2010” which gives an other viewpoint to economic freedom.
Reporters Without Borders is registered in France as a non-profit organisation and has consultant status at the United Nations. Reporters Without Borders is present in all five continents through its national branches. Reporters Without Borders: defends journalists and media assistants imprisoned or persecuted for doing their job, fights against censorship, gives financial aid to journalists in difficulty and works to improve the safety of journalists, especially those reporting in war zones. Reporters Without Borders has fought for press freedom on a daily basis since it was founded in 1985.
Summary table of Freedom in Balkans, Black Sea and some comparison data
(Note: the order below is made according UNDP’s “Human development index”, in other categories order can be checked from ranks)
Human development index
(Freedom House) Political Rights/ Civil Liberties
|Economic Freedom (WSJ/THF) & Competitiveness (WEB)||Press Freedom (Reporters w. borders/Freedom House)|
Name & Score
|P R||C L||Status||HF/WSJ Rank/Scr||
|1.||Norway (0.971)||1||1||Free||37./69.4||14 +||
|13. ↓||U.S.A. (0.956)||1||1||Free||8./78.0||2 –||20./4.00||24|
|25.||Greece (0.942)||1||2||Free||73./62.7||71 —||35./ 9,00||29|
|29.||Slovenia (0.929)||1||1||Free||61./64.7||37 ++||37./ 9,50||25|
|45.||Croatia (0.871)||1||2||Free||92./59.2||72 —||78./ 17,17||85|
|61. ↓||Bulgaria (0.840)||2||2||Free||75./62.3||76||68./15,61||76|
|63. ↑||Romania (0.837)||2||2||Free||63./64.2||64 +||50./12,50||88|
|65.||Montenegro (0.834)||3||2||Free||68./ 63.6||62 +||77./17,00||80|
|67.||Serbia (0.826)||2||2||Free||104./56.9||93 —||62./ 15,50||78|
|70.||Albania (0.818)||3||3||Partly Free||53./66.0||96 +||82./21,75||102|
|71. ↑||Russia (0.817)||6||5||Not Free||143./50.3||63 –||153./60,88||175|
|72.||Macedonia FYR (0.817)||3||3||Partly Free||56./65.7||84 +||34./ 8,75||94|
|75.||Brazil (0.813)||2||2||Free||113./ 55.6||56 ++||71./15,88||88|
|76.||Bosnia-Herzegovina (0.812)||4||3||Partly Free||110./56.2||109 –||39./ 10,50||97|
|79. ↓||Turkey (0.806)||3||3||Partly Free||67./63.8||61 +||122./ 38,25||106|
|NA||Kosovo (under UN 1244)||5||4||Partly Free||NA||NA||75./ 16,58||108|
|84. ↑||Armenia (0.798)||6||4||Partly Free||38./69.2||97||111./31,13||146|
|85. ↓||Ukraine (0.796)||3||2||Free||162./46.4||82 —||89./ 22,00||108|
|86. ↑||Azerbaijan (0.787)||6||5||Not Free||96./58.8||51 +||146./53,50||172|
|88. ↓||Iran (0.782)||6||6||Not Free||168./43.4||NA||172./104,14||187|
|89. ↑||Georgia (0.778)||4||4||Partly Free||26./70.4||90||81./18,83||126|
|92. ↑||China (0.772)||7||6||Not Free||140./51.0||29 +||168./84,50||181|
|117.||Moldova (0.720)||3||4||Partly Free||125./53.7||NA||114./33,75||144|
|134.||India (0.612)||2||3||Free||124./53.8||49 +||105./29,33||72|
|182.||Niger (0.340)||5||4||Partly Free||129./52.9||NA||139./ 48,50||151|
Full reports and country analysis from each category can be found from related organizations – see sources above.
UNDP’s methodology includes besides data collection a serial of background seminars and regional and thematic events. Due heavy preparation process the report 2009 is based to oldest data mostly from years 2006-2008. The UNDP 2010 report will launch around the world this autumn and will have three parts. First, a systematic assessment of progress and setbacks in human development since the 1970s, in which we discuss what has been achieved, what seems to work, and what are the key gaps and constraints. The second part will revisit the concept of human development – and its measurement (including the Human Development Index) – and propose the enhancements needed to help policy-makers ensure that people are at the centre of development. In this light, the third and final part would highlight concrete implications for policy and development strategies, and outline recommendations for a new development agenda.
Freedom House’s report “Freedom in the World 2010” reflects developments that took place in the calendar year 2009. The full survey, including the individual country reports, will be available in late spring 2010. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions and 15 civil liberties questions. The political rights questions are grouped into three subcategories: Electoral Process (3 questions), Political Pluralism and Participation (4), and Functioning of Government (3). The civil liberties questions are grouped into four subcategories: Freedom of Expression and Belief (4 questions), Associational and Organizational Rights (3), Rule of Law (4), and Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights (4).
Related to some disputed regions Freedom House ranks status of Abkhazia and Nagorno-Karabakh as Partly Free, but South Ossetia and Transdnistria as Not Free.
WEF defines competitiveness as the set of institutions, policies, and factors that determine the level of productivity of a country. The level of productivity, in turn, sets the sustainable level of prosperity that can be earned by an economy. In other words, more-competitive economies tend to be able to produce higher levels of income for their citizens. The productivity level also determines the rates of return obtained by investments in an economy.
Freedom House’s examination of the level of press freedom in each country currently comprises 23 methodology questions and 109 indicators divided into three broad categories: the legal environment, the political environment, and the economic environment. The 2010 report did note some changes in the region that includes Western Balkan countries. Improvements were noted in several countries, including Bulgaria and Ukraine, primarily due to fewer cases of physical attacks and harassment, as well as greater editorial and ownership diversity. Meanwhile, Armenia and Moldova both saw numerical gains as a result of reduced censorship and restrictions on news coverage. The score improvement for Serbia in 2009 reflected the fact that Kosovo was scored separately for the first time in this edition of the survey. Croatia’s score “fell from 38 to 40 due to the removal of and legal action against journalists covering war crimes, organized crime, and corruption. There was also less diversity due to rising concentration of private media ownership.”
Because freedom is so highly valued factor, there is constant debate over exactly what the word means. Disputes are often politically charged, and they are not likely ever to be completely resolved. James P.Young summarizes following:
Analysis of the idea is also complicated because it is impossible to consider freedom without taking into account related concepts such as democracy and constitutionalism, problems such as majority rule and minority rights, and the tension between liberty and equality. The American Declaration of Independence represents one of the climactic moments in the long development of the idea of freedom and arguably achieves universality, despite having grown out of the specific revolutionary situation in the colonies. Yet throughout their history, Americans have argued about how the principles found in the Declaration should be applied. For example, does the right to life rule out the death penalty?
(More e.g. in “A Short Historical Sketch on the Idea of Freedom” by James P. Young)
The bottom line
“Democracy is a form of government that cannot long survive, for as soon as the people learn that they have a voice in the fiscal policies of the government, they will move to vote for themselves all the money in the treasury, and bankrupt the nation.”(Karl Marx)
While comparing different data it seems that there is some conflict between economic freedom and especially competitiveness and other political rights, civil liberties and press freedom. It remains to be seen whether present global and regional financial turmoil and environmental challenges will change the balance one way or the other.
“We must plan for freedom, and not only for security, if for no other reason than only freedom can make security more secure.”(Sir Karl Popper)
Balkans and Failed States Index (Jan. 2009/failed state index based on social, economical and political inducators)
Competitiveness of Balkans (Oct. 2008)
Freedom in Balkans (Jan. 2009/political rights and civil liberties. Democracy, economy, poverty, movement)